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Special thanks: To Miss Peachie Reyes, thank you for seeing me through these four years, for being the friendliest and never-tiring department secretary. To yoga, which helped keep my stress levels low and mental clarity sharp amid the swamp of academic requirements.
To my teammates and friends, for your kind support and words of encouragement.
And finally, to my family, thank you for your inexhaustible understanding and loving support. My education and consequently, this thesis, would not have been possible without all of you. Table of Contents I.
Introduction II. Like Amparo, she graduated from the University of the Philippines and moved to California, marrying an American and for some time, briefly worked as a phone interpreter. Furthermore, The Mango Bride, though a large part of its story is based in the Philippines, reveals a mindset geared towards the Western, being in itself written in English—only translated into Tagalog by Danton Remoto later on in —and published by an American publishing house, Penguin Books.
Finally, philanthropy supplies the symbolic resolution in the novel with regard to the enmity between the hegemonic and oppressed classes. While bleeding and calling for her other maids, she still managed to notice that the chandelier needed dusting, and made a mental note to herself to have another maid dust it later.
The eldest son, Miguel, being a cosmetic surgeon catering to the wealthy ladies around Manila, was summoned, because going to the hospital would have caused a scandal. Beverly, the long-battered Uy 4 housewife, had been shot by her American husband, Josiah, while she was slitting his throat, because of an argument that escalated after he had discovered the money she had slowly been pooling for herself and their daughter, Claire, to escape the life that had gone horribly awry from what she had originally aspired for in America when she signed up to be a mail-order bride.
It was with more than the usual sympathy Amparo had for those Filipinas she translated for when she rushed to where Beverly was after the gunshot, demanding to know if Claire was safe. It is not only through the characters and their interactions that one can see the antagonism between classes, but even through the very fates they live through in the novel: two generations, Clara and Beverly, are ostracized, only to have the third, Claire, welcomed back into the family fold in an attempt to augment the fact that Amparo, as the protagonist, is dissimilar to the members of the class she originally belongs and returns to in the end.
He considers antagonistic the dialectic of the history of class struggle, in other words, the dynamics of the oppressor and the oppressed. The frameworks are concentric and are like horizons in the sense that they widen out first from the context of the political, then to the social, and finally to the historical.
The discourse between classes can be described as an antagonistic class dichotomy, and as opposed to the first horizon, where the text stands for a symbolic resolution, the text in the second horizon represents a polemic strategy for ideologically confronting opposing classes Jameson Ideologemes are never directly explicit, and require reconstruction.
Discourses on Non‐conforming Marriages: Love in Taiwan
The narrative paradigms in which these ideological signals are carried through can be different, but it is understood as the same preexisting ideologeme. This is because ideologemes not only provide socially symbolic solutions to the ideological class contradictions found in a text; they also have the capacity to mediate between ideological conceptions and various narrative paradigms.
Uy 7 The ideologeme can manifest as either a pseudo-idea or a proto-narrative. The duality explains how the ideologeme is able to simultaneously mediate both the abstract ideology and the concrete narrative. Jameson further defines the operation of the ideologeme with three examples: ressentiment, philanthropy, and melodrama. According to Nietzsche, it is because ressentiment became a creative force that morality took on the binary of good and evil in relation to the class dichotomy of the nobility and the peasantry.
A Nietzschean understanding of slavery concludes that the slaves, who were viewed with piteous disdain, took to blaming the nobles who denied suffering in order to release their suppressed resentment.
The philosophy of charity, then, for Nietzsche, is merely an enslaving mentality disguised as the Judeo-Christian tradition perpetuated by the slaves as a revenge on their masters. Thyrza is another example. Thyrza, a hat-trimmer who is initially engaged to her neighbor, the working-class Grail, meets and falls in love with Egremont, Oxford-educated and middle-class man, who offered Grail a better job. Egremont, who possesses the characteristic of philanthropic altruism, has this characteristic read by Jameson as an unmasking of a hostile gesture concealed within a charitable impulse, a somewhat Nietzschean understanding of philanthropy It is also because Egremont, as the more Uy 9 favored one in life, being able to pluck away what is the sole possession of his fictional foil, Grail, that allows the philanthropic motif to be revealed as nothing more than an ideologeme.
Evident, then, is a reinforcement of the magnanimity of the hegemonic social class in both The Nether World and Thyrza. Clara aspired to rise above her class station by becoming an actress, alienated as she was by her low class status, only to have acid thrown in her face by a rival; while Thyrza is killed off because she attempted to marry Egremont, who was higher in class, better educated, and financially better off than herself, which Jameson reads as a message to the lower classes to stay in their place Thus, the solutions melodrama provides are symbolic at most, characteristic of how ideologemes function.
Ideologemes, of which melodrama is an example, thus prove to clearly resist historical revision; verifiable as one turns his attention to how melodrama, as a fundamental mode of expression since the time of Dickens in the 19th century, has again emerged, in a recycled, but distinctly, essentially identical form in a novel published in the 21st century.
In order to gain a deeper appreciation of the ideologeme of melodrama, it is crucial to mention the work of Peter Brooks, author of The Melodramatic Imagination.
In other words, melodrama can be defined as an episode in the Nietzschean theory on slave rebellion precisely because melodrama features a form of moral erosion that overcomes the enslaver.
Melodrama typically pits virtue and evil against each other, very explicitly defining each one, and after the initial articulation and recognition of evil, virtue will break free from its oppressed or repressed state Brooks Furthermore, having as its concern the imposition of basic ethical truths, melodrama employs a simplicity of classification: good and evil as moral feelings and emotion as lying in the jurisdiction of morality.
In addition to being in charge of manual labor, which saved their employers from doing more than pressing a buzzer, and as if to further solidify their disparity, the servants were shown to be squatting on the sidewalks as they Uy 11 gossip, while eating street food, such as balut and taho Soliven The Mango Bride, in accordance with the slave morality that informs ressentiment, champions the ostracization of those possessing the mentality of a master morality.
Ressentiment conditions the class conflict in the novel by highlighting antagonistic class interactions through the invariable juxtaposition of Amparo and Beverly, as if to underscore the common anxieties and crises of their classes. Despite being thrown into a more or less similar situation in America, which stands as the symbolic class equalizer in the novel, Amparo still comes off as the advantageous individual.
Amparo, like Beverly, with no servants or parents to depend on, had to do her own household chores, such as cooking, washing dishes, cleaning, etc. Similar to Beverly, Amparo was an outsider who was far away from home and family members, aside from her Tito Aldo, who was a fellow black sheep.
Amparo also had friends, gained through Manong Del, who invited her to Filipino veteran gatherings and treated her with a paternal affection Soliven Beverly, on the other hand, was forbidden by Josiah to make friends, seen by how Josiah warned her to stay away from Hitomi, the closest person Beverly had to a friend in Oakland, and by how she refused to give Amparo her phone number because Josiah had prohibited it Soliven , Beverly and Clara, who are both characters that represent the lower class, can be read as part of melodrama in a narrative strategy created by a member of the upper class.
The penultimate rebuke, death, occurred to both, but not before they had been violated by the Uy 14 oppressive structures. For Clara, aside from being evicted from the vicinity of the Duarte clan, was forcibly separated from the father of her unborn child and bore an illegitimate child alone Soliven Jendayi E.
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Are You Ready Going on a Romantic Tour to Asia?
Radicalization and Extremism. Hate Speech on Social Media: Global Comparisons. Backgrounder by Zachary Laub April 11, Foreign Policy. Council Special Report by Robert D. Blackwill April 15, U. The need to live up to the legacy of their ancestors is further expressed in the way they describe what they feel is their duty to kidnap: Therefore, we bear witness to the ways in which the Kyrgyz have employed the ethno-national discourse imposed by their government and re-interpreted it in ways that fit their worldview.
Nonetheless, it is evident that bride kidnapping has been instrumental in the internalization of the notions of Kyrgyzness endorsed by the state, as it reinforces the purported image of ethnic identity. Promoting a Patriarchal State Returning to our earlier discussion, bride kidnapping reinforces traditional structures that are viewed favorably within Kyrgyz society, among them patriarchy.
The proliferation of patriarchy, as alluded to earlier, takes place within the private sphere although bride kidnapping also reinforces existing patriarchal structures at the state level.
Kyrgyz men wield the power to dominate Kyrgyz women in as much as they constitute the majority at all levels of government and everyday life. At the state level, it is yet again the men who rule in abundance. According to data from the Inter-Parliamentary Union , women only occupy 28 out of seats in the National Parliament. As a result, 23 women secured positions in Parliament, going on to occupy high posts in government. Department of State Kyrgyz members of Parliament MPs refuse to give non- consensual bride kidnapping its due importance.
While Article of the Kyrgyz Criminal Code allows for someone guilty of livestock theft to serve up to 11 years in prison, as stipulated under Article of that same code, someone convicted for bride kidnapping can only serve up to three years Kasymova Vice Speaker Asiya Sasykbaeva suggested for bride kidnappers to be subject to the same penalties Kasymova Herein, it is evident that male government officials strategically approve or reject legislation that serves their interests, or allows them to have access to women.
It claims the new bill increased the maximum sentence for someone who kidnaps a girl under 17 years of age to 11 years in prison, while those who kidnap women over 17 are to face 5 years in prison The journalist and her husband have pressed charges against the tabloid journalists Muratbekov With respect to the nikaah bill, which would have censured Muslim clerics, the results were quite interesting.
Out of the MPs, only 73 cast their vote. Among the 47 MPs not present for the session, 41 were male. All things considered, it is evident that the support of bride kidnapping follows and reinforces the domination of men in the state.
By occupying the majority of positions of power in the Kyrgyz government, Kyrgyz men are able to exert their influence over decision-making processes that could have serious implications. In this way, men guarantee their dominance in Kyrgyz society at large. We have seen how marriage practices have changed over generations: Late in the 20th century, a simpler marriage carried out through the civil registry slowly became the preferred marriage union.
However, as marriage costs increased, other forms of marriage became more prevalent, namely bride kidnapping.
The practice became more prevalent, I suggest, as the Kyrgyz searched for what was ethnically Kyrgyz, notwithstanding the muddled category itself. Bride kidnapping became the favorable alternative in an attempt to reconcile economic realities and the need to reclaim ethnic Kyrgyzness.
The normalization of bride kidnapping in Kyrgyz society — by way of its social, political, and economic context — helped cement its cultural value, namely in perceptions of adulthood, manhood, femininity, honor and shame, power hierarchies based on patriarchy and gerontocracy, and an existent, yet quite nominal, Muslim identity.
Furthermore, bride kidnapping allows men to maintain their position of power and have access to women, not only in local communities but also at the state level, promoting patriarchy at different scales. The complex historical background and socio-political conditions in Kyrgyzstan makes it difficult to combat bride kidnapping. In what follows, however, this paper offers a new understanding of non-consensual bride kidnapping that forcefully considers its exploitative nature by positing the practice as a form of human trafficking.
Labeling the practice as such can potentially deconstruct the notion that bride kidnapping is an immutable cultural artifact. Although the term was originally limited to these two issues, it has come to encompass various other exploitative practices, extending to the exploitation of labor, the forced recruitment of children in armed conflicts, illegal adoptions, and the download and sale of human organs Scarpa That being said, this paper aims to extend the definition of human trafficking to include non-consensual bride kidnapping by using a human trafficking framework.
UN General Assembly Therefore, because the definition has been continually challenged in light of new, emerging forms of exploitation, I hope to once again complicate this discussion. She defines human trafficking as follows: Trafficking in persons means the recruitment, transportation, download, sale, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons: This would allow them to gain more leverage against the socio-political bastion surrounding the practice within Kyrgyzstan.
A redefinition by the authorities on human trafficking is important because the ambiguities of the current definition allow for cases of internal or domestic trafficking to be ignored. It also prevents exploitative arrangements resulting from other indefinite practices to be recognized as instances of trafficking. For example, there still exists a debate among scholars on whether or not to define mail-order brides as victims trafficked women or agents happily-wedded brides.
A woman who secures a foreign husband through the internet, friends, or a marriage broker is considered a mail-order bride. Plembach quotes Jans, the Danish husband of one Thai woman: However, this is problematic as marital rape is also a known phenomenon.
However, a legitimate marriage in the eyes of the community is not a legitimate marriage in the eyes of the state. Furthermore, it neither nullifies the coercion exerted to occasion it nor the exploitation that results from it. In terms of obtaining more political leverage, it is important to step away from the notion that the institution of marriage is irreproachable and promote, instead, its inclusion into the human trafficking definition itself or, at least, its interpretation and conceptualization.
Further association of non-consensual bride kidnapping with human trafficking will allow for its additional association with organized crime. Although this paper does not intend to argue that non-consensual bride kidnapping, if viewed as human trafficking, is therefore a form of organized crime, it offers activists a way in which they can promote an understanding of the practice as a criminal act.
Oftentimes, organized crime is associated with large networks or rings. Women in Action 3 Crandall, K. Senturia, M. Sullivan, and S. Shiu-Thornton, No Way Out: Journal of Interpersonal Behavior 20, no. Just recently a young Moroccan woman named Amina Filali, who was forced by her parents to marry her rapist, committed suicide. For more on this case, please see: Many actors are involved in the proliferation of non- consensual bride kidnappings.
Therefore, associating the practice with human trafficking and, further, with organized crime will only strengthen its recognition as a crime and not a custom.
Mental health of female foreign spouses in transnational marriages in southern Taiwan
The kidnapper and his friends literally snatch up the bride-to-be, usually by carrying her and forcing her into a runaway vehicle. The use of physical force is not limited simply to the initial stages of the kidnapping. Similarly, Elmira E. As noted above, women are sometimes beaten by her kidnappers. The Center for Women based in Bishkek estimates that out of the 11, girls abducted annually, around 2, of them suffer rape in the process Nogoibaeva Instead, however, they are taken to the 63 Feruza F.
Also, there seems to be a relation between the violence a woman experiences during her kidnapping and the amount of alcohol her kidnappers have ingested beforehand Handrahan Similarly, Feruza F. The abuse of power or authority can be physical, such as when men exert their collective strength over women, as we saw earlier. In this way, they are exploiting her position of vulnerability, as she will always be weaker in comparison to combined strength of the male group and, being caught by surprise, can never adequately prepare to resist the initial snatch.
Yet, the abuse of power and vulnerability can also be social. Adults and elders, being highly respected in Kyrgyz society, exert their influence over young women in the earlier convincing stage, later on in the letter-writing stage, 71 and finally in the acceptance stage.
Likewise, when Shoira S. Finally, in the acceptance stage, as we have mentioned, parents will urge their daughters to stay, out of fear of a tarnished reputation Werner The giving or receiving of payments is equivalent to the payment of the bride price, which can in and of itself be seen as a monetary transaction that results in marriage. The men who engage in bride kidnappings are not exempt from the payment of a bride price; however, it is widely understood that a kidnapping results in a significantly lowered bride price, if any Werner Purpose The third element within the Trafficking Protocol references the purpose, namely exploitation, for which an action is carried out through the means stated above: Non- commercial exploits include the mail-order bride phenomenon as well as early and forced marriages.
As discussed earlier, rape is quite common in non-consensual kidnapped marriages. Just as when a woman that comes into prostitution after being forcibly trafficked, a 72 Ainura A.
Still, when Ainura finally became pregnant not once but twice, her mother-in-law went as far as to liken her to a dog HRW Similarly, Shoira S. Ultimately she was unable to, as her husband was not only mentally ill but impotent HRW The exploitation of labor and other services as well as conditions similar to that which we consider slavery are also observed in the homes of non-consensually kidnapped brides.
Lastly, they are subject to domestic abuse at the hands of their husbands Voronina states that according to statistical data from , 12 percent of women were married before the age of More recently, statistics show that Moreover, simply because a kidnapped bride may be still considered a child does not mean she is exempted for the routine exploitation that takes place.
However, that has not been the case in Kyrgyzstan. As mentioned above, labeling non-consensual bride kidnapping as human trafficking may or may not be useful for activists. It can very well be that human trafficking activists, in the more traditional sense, might not want non-consensual bride kidnapping to mar their campaigns, as the practice in and of itself evokes so much confusion and ambiguity.
Others might even try to discredit the argument by claiming that the ends do justify the means.
How to End Child Marriage
In other words, for such people, a kidnapping is justified so long as it results in successful marriage, however that may be defined. Additionally, by labeling the practice as human trafficking, a debate may arise as to whether or not the label would be applied solely to the act of kidnapping a bride without her consent or if it would include the marriage that results from it. Following the human trafficking argument, one might suggest that a happy bride could be suffering from Stockholm syndrome, whereby she has become attached to and empathetic of her captor HRW Moreover, the issue of consent needs to be further explored.
Cynthia Werner discusses different levels of consent, but it is necessary to understand the moment at which Kyrgyz people give and perceive consent being given. These would make compelling areas for future research, but they go beyond the scope of this paper. One young woman, Alimakhan, was kidnapped at 16 near the southern city of Batkin. The movement picked up particularly after three young Kyrgyz women committed suicide, refusing to accept their fates as kidnapped brides Asylbekova Various civil society actors have been actively campaigning and engaging Kyrgyz people to stop non-consensual bride kidnappings.
Most notably, the Bishkek Feminists civic group seems to have been at the forefront of the anti-bride kidnapping movement and has promoted awareness in various capacities.
The group is particularly 79 Please see Appendix B, Figures 1 and 2. Another organization called Open Line hosted a video-making workshop for Kyrgyz youth in March of Four videos resulted from the workshop.
Now let her make her own choice. The sound of sirens plays in the background. It moves on to another scene where the same girl asks her father for help with her homework. In the next scene we see the same girl now as a young woman, being snatched up by kidnappers. After managing to escape, she runs back to her house. Her parents welcome her back with open arms. As a result of these initiatives and the pressure that they have placed on the Kyrgyz government, Parliament recently passed a bill that extended the penalty for bride kidnapping from three years in prison to 10 years.
Soon after, the first kidnapper was sentenced to 6 years in prison. Although the accused has now appealed the court ruling, and may be acquitted of the charges and freed before serving his full term, this is undeniably a landmark occasion in the ongoing campaign against non-consensual bride kidnapping.
What will become of the practice and of those complicit with it, we do not know. However, as more and more opposition groups make their voices heard, change is sure to follow. An understanding of bride kidnapping, this paper has suggested, requires a close examination of its emerging historical and ethnographic context. Rather, the argument put forward considers non-consensual bride kidnapping in light of the broader context of state ideologies and nation-building efforts.
In fact, the theoretical and conceptual framing put forth in this paper departs from the constraints of traditional customs or the unmovable principle of history and deeply entrenched cultural norms to highlight instead the parallels — social, legal, and political — with other contexts of exploitation. It is in dialogue with other instances of human trafficking, this paper suggests, that a more nuanced understanding of non-consensual kidnapping practices can emerge without ascribing cultural norms as the sole determinant of its existence.
The voices of women have for too long been silenced, lost to the dictates of state rulers, parliament legislatures, and other figures of authority. A note on the transliteration of Kyrgyz and Russian terms: Although more than one spelling exists for some terms, only one spelling is used throughout the paper, for the sake of clarity; alternate spellings can be found in this list.
Campaign Photos Figure 1. Image credit: Bishkek Feminists Figure 2. MP Ryspaev, as he steals a lamb-bride, says: Bishkek Feminists Figure 3. Activists place colored flags in Bishkek. Photo credit: Sodiqov, Alexander. Patriarchal Society as Seen by Artists. Do not be afraid to take your daughter back! Call ! Rickleton, Chris. Historical Dictionary of Kyrgyzstan.
Scarecrow Press, Culture and Customs of the Central Asian Republics. Greenwood Press, Abdurasulov, Abdujalil. Aitmatov, Chinghiz. Telegram Books, Aitmatova, Rozetta. New York: UNFP, Akaev, Askar. Global Scholarly Publications, Alkon, Cynthia.I'll show you my tree house. CO2 is cold water.
E-Mail Order Bride
All it took was a few minutes in front of a notary. Afterwards, a larger number of qualifying foreign spouses were recruited through snowballing.
Aware of the inconsistency but no longer concerned by it, Leslie felt the tension seep out of her even as she was emboldened to kiss him back. How about you?
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