This Electrical Safety Hazards Handbook was developed for general education purposes only and Use the information within this Handbook at your own risk. Chapter 2. Electrical Safety Equipment. Introduction / Glossary / General Inspection and Testing Requirements for Electrical. Safety Equipment / ELECTRICAL SAFETY HAZARDS HANDBOOK The World's Leading Provider of Circuit Protection Solutions Littelfuse is the global leader in circuit protection A.
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Abstract: Covering every major electrical standard, including NEC, NESC, NFPA, 70E, IEEE , and OSHA, Electrical Safety Handbook, Fourth Edition is a. Electrical Workers' Safety Handbook. 4. CONTENTS. 6 About This Handbook. 8 Conduct and Professionalism. OSHA Guidelines for a Safe Workplace. This DOE Electrical Safety Handbook replaces the DOE Electrical Safety other electrical codes and standards utilized in this handbook include: 29 CFR
Inadequate electrical installation often resulted in fires, and standard installation methods did not exist. At that time, even though fires and electrocutions were occurring, the use of electricity quickly expanded to other parts of the United States. Electrical designs and installations varied widely from one facility to another. Injury data and economic losses illustrated that both fire and electrocution were hazards, and insurance companies recognized the impor- tance of standardization.
If an installation standard could be developed, both electrocution and fire could be reduced. The system of voluntary electrical standards that currently exists was developed after fire, and electrocution became recognized electrical hazards. The system of codes and standards that guides installations consists of documents generated by standards-developing organizations, third-party inspection of electrical equipment, and enforcement by inspecting organizations.
The system does a good job of keeping the public safe from both electrocution and fires, pro- vided the electrical equipment doors are latched, adequately maintained, and the equipment is operating normally. In recent years, the community has begun to recognize that in addition to fire and electro- cution, arc-flash and arc-blast hazards also result in injury.
The knowledge base about these hazards is expanding but is not yet complete. The community knows that as the distance between a worker and an electrical hazard decreases, the degree of exposure increases.
Electrical Safety Handbook, 4th Edition
Workers must understand that they are exposed to these hazards until an electrically safe work condition has been established, as explained in this handbook.
When a failure occurs, a worker is expected to identify the problem, repair the problem, and restore the equipment to normal service. Although the electrical energy sometimes is removed before a worker begins a maintenance task, those tasks often are executed while the source of electricity is energized.
Short-term employees may be expected to work in an environment that includes exposure to energized electrical circuits and components.
Consultant and service employees are frequently exposed to energized electrical equipment and circuits. In many cases, the worker might troubleshoot while the circuit is energized.
Workers certainly should not be unnecessarily exposed to hazards.
CLASSE Safety Handbook
Remove the extension cord when you are finished. Extension cords are not to become permanent fixtures for regular use. Gloves may be required however, do not wear gloves when you are operating a revolving tool, such as a drill or saw. Safety glasses prescription and non-prescription and boots or shoes of many types are also available with download orders from the business office.
Wear appropriate personal protective equipment when you are working with power tools, electricity of 50 volts or greater, or heavy equipment. Remember that watches and rings can cause fatal injury by acting as conductors.
Electrical Safety Handbook, Fourth Edition
Remove all jewelry when you are working with power tools or near electrical hazards. Collapse Know Your Equipment Know Your Equipment Before beginning electrical work, check that your diagnostic equipment is in good working order, is properly calibrated, and covers the range necessary for the job.
A small, hand-held digital voltage meter DVM is commonly used, but you must check the rating on the front of the DVM to ensure that the voltage with which you are working is under the meter's maximum rating. It is dangerous to use a meter on voltages that exceed its maximum rating.
Use proper testing equipment and accessories when repairing AC or DC powered equipment.
Choose probes and modules carefully because they are rated for different peak voltages. Remember that peak AC voltage is about one and a half times the normally quoted RMS root mean square voltage. If you are unsure of which probe to choose for the equipment you are planning to work on, then you should use a DVM with a rating higher than the highest possible voltage in the equipment you are working on to measure the voltage first.
When you are in damp or wet areas, you must power line-operated equipment through a ground fault circuit interrupter GFCI. Test each GFCI before using it. Portable GFCIs are available from technical supervisors.
Before bench-testing a line-operated chassis, bond metal test benches to the ground and use a circuit breaker to ensure that the current is limited.
A ground-fault circuit interupter may provide additional protection. You may also need a second person with you to satisfy the two-person rule. Before testing or working on high voltage equipment or equipment capable of energy storage, note any posted warnings and then de-energize it with a grounding stick.
In addition to risks of restricted respiration, cardiac arrest, and internal organ damage, conducting high currents through the skin can leave severe burns. It is always prudent to use one or more safeguards such as wearing appropriate protective equipment, or de-energizing a circuit before working on it if the hazard level is uncertain. However, if the 50 V level is exceeded, or abnormal conditions prevail, the use of safeguards is required, as is specialized training.
Another hazard of some electrical equipment is that of "arc flash". An arc flash occurs when an unintended low impedance current path becomes available to a circuit capable of supplying high current, and results in an explosion which blasts molten metal and an expanding plasma with great force and extremely high temperatures. Serious injury and death can occur for anyone in the vicinity of an arc flash, especially if appropriate protective equipment is not worn.
An arc-flash hazard may exist at some AC power distribution panels, with the danger being highest for higher voltages and power capabilities. Specialized training is necessary to work in the vicinity of any arc-flash hazard.
Good Housekeeping Poor housekeeping is the main reason that electricity is the number one cause of fires in the workplace nationwide.
Although safety features such as circuit breakers, ground fault circuit interrupters , and insulators are designed to prevent electricity from becoming the heat source for fires, poor housekeeping may still cause a fire. Good housekeeping requires that you: Clean up liquid spills near electrical equipment immediately and be sure that electrical equipment is thoroughly dry before applying power Store flammable liquids away from electrical equipment Keep electrical cords away from heat sources Do not overload outlets Do not plug a power strip into another power strip Keep paths to fire extinguishers clear Keep your work area neat and clean to protect yourself and your co-workers from fire hazards, but remember your own safety depends on good housekeeping throughout the lab.
If you see faulty equipment or poor housekeeping anywhere in the lab, please report it immediately. Two-Person Rule Never work alone when you could be exposed to hazardous voltages above 50V or current above 25 mA.
A second person must stand as a backup.
The backup person must be in the immediate area and attentive to the work in progress. He or she must know both where to shut off power and how to call for help. If you are unsure whether you qualify to act in a role of the second person, then consult your supervisor.
He or she is responsible for assuring each person's qualifications, and will assign one person to do the work and the other to be the backup. Extension Cords Damaged and improperly used extension cords cause thousands of electrical fires and injuries in homes and workplaces every year.
Before using extension cords, inspect them for cracks, ripped insulation, and damaged or missing grounding prongs.
Do not bend back or break off grounding prongs: they are important safety features that receive harmful stray currents.Observe safe work practices. Materials that have very low resistance pumps, or transformers are common examples. Written by experts in electrical operations, maintenance, engineering, construction, and safety, this fully revised edition delivers complete details on: What is the maximum continuous three hours or more current expected? Determine the Incident Energy at 18 inches working distance with the Circuit Breaker.
Where the possibility of induced work on energized equipment include: Work- shock and Arc-Flash approach boundaries to ing with industry associations, manufacturers, energized equipment and addresses how to experts, insurance companies, and government For more information: