Learn Typing is an online free typing tutor. Our typing lessons to touch type. Our e-Book will teach you to TOUCH TYPE LIKE A PRO and master the keyboard . You learn typing with all fingers, step by step, without having to look down at the keyboard all the time to find the right keys which slows you down a lot. 7. Shiv English typing lessons - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. After this lesson starts the book. Note: 1.

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Ask students, “Why should you learn the correct keyboarding position?" Sample important to know the correct typing position to be able to type efficiently and. Lesson 1: English Typing Basics. Instructions Lesson 3: Shift + Home Row Keys Practice Lesson 6: Simple Word Practice By Home And Upper Row Keys . The following % free online typing practice lessons and exercises will help all users (beginner, intermediate, & advanced) to increase their typing skills.

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Jon Dyer. Alapati Vinod Kumar. Bryan Riggins. Orlando Melipillan. Kaiser Julianus Apostata. Pliny the Elder, gave an account of the manufacture of paper from papyrus. The fibrous layers within the stem of the plant were removed and a number of these longitudinal strips were placed side by side and then crossed at right angles with another set of strips. The two layers formed a sheet, which was then dampened and pressed.

Upon drying the glue-likesap of the plant acted as an adhesive and cemented the layers together. The sheet was finally hammered and dried in the sun.

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A number of these sheets were then joined together with paste to form a roll, with usually not more than 20 sheets to a roll. As time passed, other fibrous plants started replacing papyrus. By the turn of 3rd Century A. D papyrus had already begun to be replaced by less expensive velum or parchment in Europe.

Parchment is said to have been invited in the 2nd Century. It is the processed skin of certain animals mainly sheep. He may have muddled his continents, but he didnt fall off the edge, the Earths surface is of course curved.

A similar question has been bothering cosmologist for nearly a century is the universe flat Researchers now announce that the answer is yes. Common sense tells us that flying through space in a straight tells us that flying through space in a straight line gets you further and further away from your starting point. But common sense and cosmology the study of the universe have little in common. Researchers have no difficulty accepting a universe in which space itself is curved.

Fly for long enough in curved space and you could find yourself back where you started But the curvature of a universe does not just bend the brain, it also has a far more worrying conclusion. A universe that contains enough mass to give it a positive curvature is doomed to a fiery end.

It will gradually stop expanding and begin to shrink, ultimately imploding in a cataclysmic big crunch. A universe, with zero curvature, a flat universe, escapes this demise.

Conditions in the young believed to have been rather like being rather like being inside the sun.

Super-hot protons and electrons were densely packed, too excited to form any stable structures. Radiation was trapped, endlessly bouncing around, in this seething sea of particles.

As this 14 proto universe grew, it gradually cooled. When it was about 3,00, years old, things finally settled down enough for atoms to form. The radiation that had been trapped finally escaped, an era known as decoupling. Since then, it has been racing through the cosmos largely keeping itself t itself. Over billions of years, it too has cooled with the expanding universe and what must originally have been energetic ultraviolet rays now reach us as feeble microwaves at just a few degrees above absolute zero.

Known as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation or CMB this radiation hold important clues about the early universe, Tiny differences in density of the baby universe caused tiny differences in the temperature of the escaping radiation.

These density fluctuations have grown into the clusters of galaxies we see to day Because of the relative simplicity of the early universe, physicists believe they have a good understanding of its mechanisms. Armed with reliable measurements of the CMB they would be able to wind back the clock and calculate the state of the universe at decoupling and hence work out its density and curvature.

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Researchers finally got the date they needed just few months ago when an experiment known as Boomerang. This is because viruses cause diseases not only in human beings but also in animals and plants.

Virus is a Latin word meaning slimy liquid or poison. The list of diseases caused by viruses is a long one.

Some of the other diseases caused by viruses in human beings are infantile paralysis, dengue, hepatitis B, influenza, common cold herpes yellow fever and small pox. Viruses are parasites. They need a living cell host for reproduction. Some viruses in fact bacteria only and they are known as bacteria-eaters.

The biological nature of virus was first indicated by a Russian scientist Dimitry. Ivanovsky and a Dutch scientist Martinus W.

Beijedrinck in the last decade of the nineteenth century. The size and shape of virus are determined by the amount and arrangement of nucleic acids and proteins. They vary in diameter from 20 nanometres to nanometres 15 one nanometer is one billionth of a metre. Viruses are too small to be seen with naked eyes. With a few exceptions they cannot be seen even with ordinary or optical microscope. The vaccinia virus can be visualized under a powerful optical microscope.

Viruses come in various shapesrods, threads, spheroids, polyhedrons and tadpole-like structure. Some viruses come in combined shapes, for example, a virus may have a polyhedral head attached to a rod-like tail. The infective part of a virus, when it is outside the host ell is called the virion. It contains atleast one protein synthesized by a specific gene of the nucleic acid of the virus. All viruses have a protein coat called a capsid around the nucleic acid.

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Some virus like disease causing organisms which have only nucleic acid and no structural proteins are known as viriods. It protects the nucleic acid of the virus from digestion by enzymes called necklaces. It help the virion to penetrate through the cell surface membrane or in some cases to inject the infectious nucleic acid into the interior of the host cell.

It provided sites on its surface which recognize the receptors on the surface of the host cells for attaching the iron. Virus is host specific, that is. A virus may not harm one type of host but can severely damage another.

Between the two, labour is supreme, for it is he who makes conscious and deliberate efforts to unravel the laws and mysteries of land and makes use of them for his own development. Indeed, his own development is the beall and end-all of his entire conscious effort. Looked at in this light, human development has been the objective of human Endeavour ever since Adam and Eve first appeared on this earth. Yes in the beginning, the thrust of human Endeavour was in the direction of spiritual development, but now it is in the direction of material development.

In the earlier years, it was primarily the responsibility of an individual to develop himself, but now it has become the responsibility of the State to arrange for all round development of human beings.

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This has put human beings in new light. The shift in emphasis from individual effort and spiritual development to State planning and material development has turned human into a factor of production an economic. Resource to be brought up developed and used for material development of the country as a whole. Population growth at an alarming rate comes in the way of these social objectives in a big way. Rapid growth of population, therefore, has rightly been cause of concern in jour country since the early fifty's.

In early fiftys, socio-economic implications of population growth were a matter of concern largely in the context of the argument that rapid population growth is an obstacle to development.

But now it is increasingly recognized that the relationship between population growth and development is not that simple it is rather much more complex.

In , it has been forcefully argued and accepted that rapid population growth itself is in many ways the result of a lack of development. In course of time many other dimensions have been added to this relationship which was once viewed to be unidirectional. After the ICPD Conference population issue is placed in a much large context of sustainable development.

Over the years, the concept of development little has undergone a change. In the context of peoplecentered development, many dimensions like gender equity, women's empowerment, environmental degradation, uplift of the weaker sections and human resource development have assumed considerable significance.

From this point of view, it is essential to look in to the implications of population. Every government should have a good administrative system or machinery to levy and collect taxes, maintain law and order, to administer justice and to implement v a r i o u s s c h e m e s , f o r e ff e c t i v e administrative machinery was felt, in the ancient days also.

There were excellent administrative set up even at the village level, in India in the ancient days. Similarly the Romans gad ab excellent administrative set up, similarly also the British, french and the Greeks. However the nature of recruitment and appointment to the various posts, were more on hereditary ;basis than on any other consideration, in those days The duties of the Governments in the ancient days were limited to the extent of providing security to the people, and defending the country from foreign invasion.

A small and selected administrative machinery was sufficient in those days but the science and technology have changed the entire set up of the society. The provisions of hospitals, educational institution, accommodation, highways and transport etc.

Have became the primary duty of any modern government. As a result, the administrative machinery has not only to be geared up to meet the demand but also transformed to suit the modern conditions. In the present days. The qualifications have been prescribed for every one of the posts each department along with the procedure for recruitment and appointment to those posts.

The service commissions recruiting boards have been constituted in all the countries, to recruit the persons, for the various posts in the different departments. They have been accorded status free from governmental interference and security of tenure to the members forming the board with a view to ensure that the recruitment is made impartially without fear or favour.

These bodies conduct examinations, interviews and select the suitable candidates to the various posts grades. The modern administrative system has become much more important in these days of the decorative governments. The representatives elected by the people need not necessarily have neither administrative experience nor talent. The representative so elected , therefore have to depend mainly on the administrative machinery to discharge their duties, in their elected offices as ministers.

He became world-famous through his vaccination for Small Pox. His father was a clergy. Janner was sent to a local school for elementary education when he showed keener interest in the study of medicine. Studying for medicine in those days was an ordeal: one had to get one-self trained under an eminent surgeon. Later, he had to study in a medical college for a period of 2 years. In a small village called Sedbury, near Bristol, Janner underwent training in surgery under an able surgeon.

At the age of 21, he went to St. George hospital in London, where he had to study further and work.

After his graduation in medicine, Janner went back to his native home to practice medicine. During his training period a milkmaid approached her trainee surgeon to get herself treated for Cowpox. Cow Pox was a mild sickness common to prevail among mosfc of the milk-vendors. However Janner momentously thought of conducting investigations on Cow Pox.

By this time, his training was getting over and Janner could take up the issue more vigorously. After many years of practice in his native home and occasional investigation into the cow pox that had afflicted his milkmaid. Janner trailed to achieve any type of success. He also started working on Small pox with the cases that had come to his clinic and at last it 18 was possible for him to succeed in getting it solved and treated. He published his work in after having studied 27 cases.

He noticed that in the people who had cow pox they did not contact small pox, after they were inoculated the fluids of cox pox. This led him to undertake a high risk of inoculating an eight year old Jimmy Phipps with cox pox virus which he extracted from the fingers of the milkmaid who had cow pox. The boy contacted cox pox. After seven weeks, he inoculated small pox virus into the same boy, which he extracted from the patient of small pox. But the boy did not now contact small pox. Now, he inoculated the same virus into another healthy person, he contacted small pox.

The he proved beyond doubts that people suffering from cox pox would not contact small pox and they contacted cox pox from the cows. In those days, people believed that one a person had small pox and recovered from it is he would never get small pox again. This was for truth in most of the cases. In other wards, people and had believed that cox pox and small pox are two different infections while he proved that people will not be affected in case they are inoculated with the attenuated viruses of cox pox.

SPEED PRACTICE Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:Indian scientists deserve kudos for having developed an appropriate technology in order to meet the fuel requirements of the rural folk by recycling locally available organic resources. Rapid changes and modifications have taken place since when the floating dome model with counter weights was developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute.

This technology gained importance also on account of the ever-rising demand for petroleum products which can only be met by enhanced imports leading to a further drain on our meagre foreign exchange resources.

The recycling of indigenous resources has at least met a fraction of our demands and acted as a deterrent on this count. The gas plant is a boon to the Indian farmers. The two main products of the project from which material gains accrue are enriched compost manure and Methane gas made from local resources available in the villages.

Whereas compost 19 manure helps to meet the fertilizer requirements of the farmers in a more economical and efficient manner and thereby boost agricultural production, biogas is used for cooking and lighting purposes. It is also used in case of larger plants, as motive power for driving small engines. In fact the wide scale utilization of Gobar the most appropriate answer to solve three national inter-connected major problems with which the country is faced today food, fertilizer and fuel.

The anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes leads to the production of methane, which can be readily used as an energy sources.

The mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen produced in this manner is called biogas. The complex organic molecules present in the organise wastes are first broken down to simpler compounds such as acetate, hydrogen oxygen, etc.

By the action of a number of different micro organisms. The simple compounds so produced are utilised by methogenic bacteria to produce methane. Methogenic bacteria can hydrogen and carbon dioxide for methane production. There are two major advantages of this type of energy source, which are the production of gas and the residual manure. Though it continues to be the traditional sector, progress has become rapid on the agricultural front.

A continuous flow of technology is coming out of the research stations. To get the best out of it, information about its implication on decision behaviour and policy should be made available to the farmers without time lag. Policies and programmes in various sectors and levels and their justification depend for effectiveness on dependable knowledge. Operational research in agriculture an rural development must observe conditions which are changing rapidly due to technological break-through the data on these are not available from the existing sources.

Information has to be updated frequently foe an effective information system for agricultural development. The centre for agricultural and rural development studies of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural university established a rural observatory in support of its developmental research with the specific objectives of carrying out the survey of resources, production. Tamil Nadu was divided into eight regions based on agro-economic Conditions.

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To have rural and urban contents, one municipality, one town panchayat and one village panchayat were selected in each of the above 20 three regions. These centres formed the observation centres for the study. The data were collected and village level information showed that irrespective of the size of the observation center, the distribution of population among male and female is almost; equal.

The percentage of weaker section depends on the nature of the center. The prosperity of a region depends on industrial development also industrial were concentrated in the municipalities and not in rural areas. The availability of infrastructural facilities resulted in the location of industries in urban centres.

The length of road and the number of vehicles operating is directly related to the degree of urbanisation. The bullock cart formed the major mode of transport in town and village panchayats. Regulated markets, cooperative marketing societies and e ve n co mmi ssi o n ma n d i e s a r e operating with urban base only.

This shows the need for dispersal of download and sale centres to help the villagers. The detailed household survey showed that while more than forty percent of the houses were thatched ones about sixty percent were tiled houses. As the degree of urbanisation increased, the percentage of living in owned houses decreased.

SPEED PRACTICE Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:The major objectives of nationalisation of commercial banks as set out by the prime minister may be summarised that removing the control over commercial banks by few large industrial houses. Providing adequate credit to the hitherto neglected sectors such as agriculture, small business, small scale and professional. To introduce professional management in commercial banking. To provide adequate training and reasonable service conditions for bank employees.

The banks have really lived up to the expectations of parliament and the prime minister The commercial banks have become powerful institutions contributing for agricultural and rural developmental and also the upliftment of weaker sections of the rural community. Some of the significant achievements are rapid branch expansion expansion, of rural credit, strengthening of the co-operative sector and support to village and rural industries.

The commercial banks in India had organised themselves along the lines and patterns of British banks. They are more comfortable with trade and large industrial houses than with the agriculture sector and small industries.Bottom Row - All right hand 1.

Check your typing tests WPM from this typing word per minute test page. Rapid growth of population, therefore, has rightly been cause of concern in jour country since the early fifty's. Try this only after you achieve 60 ore more WPM as we said earler. Using the Shift and Enter Keys Lesson 5: Tongue twisters 4. Sound effects and animation are used to make learning to type fun and funny. Right hand only - easy words Typing Practice Some virus like disease causing organisms which have only nucleic acid and no structural proteins are known as viriods.

The biological nature of virus was first indicated by a Russian scientist Dimitry.

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