# GENETIC ALGORITHM IN SEARCH OPTIMIZATION AND MACHINE LEARNING PDF

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Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Bibliography: . mization. Chapter 1 introduces the topic of genetic search; it also describes a. What Are Genetic Algorithms? 1. Robustness of Traditional Optimization and Search Methods 2. The Goals of Optimization 6. How Are Genetic Algorithms. Chi-Yao Hsu, Yung-Chi Hsu, Sheng-Fuu Lin, Reinforcement evolutionary learning using data mining algorithm with TSK-type fuzzy controllers, Applied Soft .

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Genetic algorithms in search optimization and machine learning pdf. Genetic algorithms and communication link speed design: Theoretical considerations. Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Download PDF. Machine Learning Genetic algorithms and communication link speed design: Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine.

## Genetic Algorithms and Machine Learning

FollowFollowing Jul 3, Selection of the optimal parameters for machine learning tasks is challenging. Some results may be bad not because the data is noisy or the used learning algorithm is weak, but due to the bad selection of the parameters values. This article gives a brief introduction about evolutionary algorithms EAs and describes genetic algorithm GA which is one of the simplest random-based EAs. After the data scientist investigated the dataset, the K-nearest neighbor KNN seems to be a good option.

To use the KNN algorithm, there is an important parameter to use which is K.

Suppose that an initial value of 3 is selected. Is that percent acceptable? In another way, can we get a better classification accuracy than what we currently reached?

But to do another experiment, we definitely must change something in the experiment such as changing the K value used in the KNN algorithm. We cannot definitely say 3 is the best value to use in this experiment unless trying to apply different values for K and noticing how the classification accuracy varies.

In optimization, we start with some kind of initial values for the variables used in the experiment. Because these values may not be the best ones to use, we should change them until getting the best ones. In some cases, these values are generated by complex functions that we cannot solve manually easily. But it is very important to do optimization because a classifier may produce a bad classification accuracy not because, for example, the data is noisy or the used learning algorithm is weak but due to the bad selection of the learning parameters initial values.

As a result, there are different optimization techniques suggested by operation research OR researchers to do such work of optimization. According to [1], optimization techniques are categorized into four main categories: Constrained Optimization Multiobjective Optimization Combinatorial Optimization Looking at various natural species, we can note how they evolve and adapt to their environments.

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We can benefit from such already existing natural systems and their natural evolution to create our artificial systems doing the same job. This is called bionics. For example, the plane is based on how the birds fly, radar comes from bats, submarine invented based on fish, and so on. As a result, principles of some optimization algorithms comes from nature. Before getting into the details of how GA works, we can get an overall idea about evolutionary algorithms EAs.

The difference between traditional algorithms and EAs is that EAs are not static but dynamic as they can evolve over time. Evolutionary algorithms have three main characteristics: Population-Based: Evolutionary algorithms are to optimize a process in which current solutions are bad to generate new better solutions.

The set of current solutions from which new solutions are to be generated is called the population. Fitness-Oriented: If there are some several solutions, how to say that one solution is better than another? There is a fitness value associated with each individual solution calculated from a fitness function.

Such fitness value reflects how good the solution is. Variation-Driven: If there is no acceptable solution in the current population according to the fitness function calculated from each individual, we should make something to generate new better solutions.

As a result, individual solutions will undergo a number of variations to generate new solutions. We will move to GA and apply these terms. Genetic Algorithm GA The genetic algorithm is a random-based classical evolutionary algorithm.

By random here we mean that in order to find a solution using the GA, random changes applied to the current solutions to generate new ones.

## Genetic Algorithms in Search Optimization and Machine Learning

It is a slow gradual process that works by making changes to the making slight and slow changes. Also, GA makes slight changes to its solutions slowly until getting the best solution. Each solution is called individual.

Each individual solution has a chromosome. The chromosome is represented as a set of parameters features that defines the individual.

Each chromosome has a set of genes.

Each gene is represented by somehow such as being represented as a string of 0s and 1s as shown in figure 1. Figure 1.

Also, each individual has a fitness value. To select the best individuals, a fitness function is used.

The result of the fitness function is the fitness value representing the quality of the solution. The higher the fitness value the higher the quality the solution. Selection of the best individuals based on their quality is applied to generate what is called a mating pool where the higher quality individual has higher probability of being selected in the mating pool. The individuals in the mating pool are called parents.

Every two parents selected from the mating pool will generate two offspring children. By just mating high-quality individuals, it is expected to get a better quality offspring than its parents.

This will kill the bad individuals from generating more bad individuals. By keeping selecting and mating high-quality individuals, there will be higher chances to just keep good properties of the individuals and leave out bad ones. Finally, this will end up with the desired optimal or acceptable solution.

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But the offspring currently generated using the selected parents just have the characteristics of its parents and no more without changes. There is no new added to it and thus the same drawbacks in its parents will actually exist in the new offspring. Genetic Algorithms and Machine Learning. Editorial Commentary. Download to read the full article text. Bateson, G. Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Google Scholar. Davis, L. Genetic algorithms and communication link speed design: Theoretical considerations.

Genetic Algorithms and Their Applications: Cambridge, MA: Lawrence Erlbaum. Edelman, G. Neural Darwinism: The theory of neuronal group selection. Basic Books. Fourman, M. Compaction of symbolic layout using genetic algorithms.

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Pittsburgh, PA: Goldberg, D. Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Reading, MA: Grefenstette, J.

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Holland, J.Validation: This is in validation. For this reason, convergence is considered to have been achieved by the point at which the ML routine prevents new candidates from being evaluated. Genetic algorithm steps. After that step, we will end selecting a subset of the population in the mating pool. Goldberg Download Here http: Introduction The current rate of discovery of clean energy materials remains a key bottleneck in the transition to renewable energy, and computational tools enabling accelerated prediction of the chemical ordering and structure of such materials, e.